ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity. It is a neurobiological disorder originating in childhood character that involves a pattern of attention deficit, hyperactivity and / or impulsivity, and that often is associated with other comorbid.
It is essential for the diagnosis of ADHD evaluate these core symptoms we have discussed ( attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsivity) submitted:
1. From an early age: before 12 years.
2. With an intensity and frequency than normal for age and developmental stage of the child.
3. That damage or interfere significantly in the child's performance in two or more areas of your life: school or work, family and social.
4. Not caused by another medical problem, toxic, a drug or another psychiatric problem.
Although there may be clinical suspicion in children under 6 years the diagnosis of ADHD must have passed this age. further, ADHD is often recognized in children when primary education begins, coinciding with difficulties in school performance and presentation of social dysfunctions.
Disorder D & eacute; deficit Attentions & COLLISION AND Hyperactivity (TDAH) has 3 nuclear symptoms (main):
– Lack of attention options | n
These symptoms can occur with varying intensity in each patient and can occur independently. Thus, the symptomatic profile of those affected will vary in intensity and presentation (based on the predominant symptoms)
Not everything that looks like what is ADHD.
You will often see these characteristics of inattention, hyperactivity or impulsivity own behavior in childhood, since it is natural that children are very active, pay little attention, just listen… But it is important to differentiate between behavior & ldquo; Normal” and one that it is not.
To be able to propose a possible Diagn & oacute; stico ADHD, They should meet the following criteria established by the DSM-5(Manual Diagn & oacute; stico and be RIVER stico of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition):
– Manifest these behaviors or some of them disproportionately compared to other TODDLER years of age and about their level of development.
– Est & aacute; present from an early age (before 12 years).
– It affects at least two different environments of life TODDLER or: school, social and / or family.
– significantly impair their quality of life.
– It is not caused by a problem m & eacute; doctor, toxic or other psychiatric problem.
It is important to see a health professional who specializes in ADHD so you can perform Diagnostic & oacute; stico cl RIVER appropriate nico and avoid as & iacute; one Diagnostic options | err stico & COLLISION neo.
The diagnosis of ADHD:
It must be based on a thorough assessment to exclude other possible causes of the child's difficulties, including information about your family, of teachers and evaluation by health professionals from different areas: child psychiatrists, Child psychologists, pediatricians, neuropsiquiatras, neuropsicólogos, etc.
The evaluation of this complex disorder must be done from a multidisciplinary perspective that addresses both psychological assessment, educational and medical.
ADHD assessment protocol
There is no single reliable test that alone allows make an exclusive diagnosis and.To establish the final diagnosis judgment is necessary to collect information from different sources around and intervene in the child and make systematic observations of their behavior and retrospective assessment of their behavior from the earliest agess.
ADHD evaluation should include:
1. A full medical examination to assess the overall health of children and discard problems visual type, auditory, anemias or lack of vital components for health.
2. A professional psychological evaluation to have a clear idea of the emotional condition of the child, including tests of intellectual ability and cognitive development.
3. A family assessment scales which are used behavior.
4. School evaluation that includes academic and behavioral history of the child in the classroom.
Diagnosis is based on compliance with the criteria DSM-V, which they are the diagnostic criteria established by the American Academy of Psychiatry (1994) or criteria CIE-10 (1992) recognized and established by WHO.
ADHD treatment should be individualized multimodal, taking into account the patient and his family. The objective of multimodal treatment is to reduce symptoms while complications from the disorder and the negative impact it can have on the lives of patients and their environment are reduced.
Multimodal treatment of ADHD involves three approaches:
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Treatment psicoeducativo (parents and teachers)
Hence the multimodal treatment is also known as combination therapy, because it requires multiple approaches and the involvement of different professionals.
According to the results of studies, drug treatment would be the most effective method to reduce nuclear symptoms of ADHD (attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsivity)1, and psychological treatment (behavioral and psychoeducational) primarily help improving executive functions (cognitive skills like starting tasks, get organized, plan things ...).
And it has been shown to educate the patient and family about the disorder, adapt the environment to the needs of each person and improve skills approach to patients, Parents and educators, They can help you get good results in the treatment of ADHD, when it combined with pharmacological intervention.